Local Blend of Plant Improves Blood Parameters In Anaemia-induced Albino Wistar Rats.

Kevin E. Aghatise

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Igbinedion University Okada

Ivie Osula and Anslem O. Ajugwo

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Madonna University Nigeria

All Correspondences to: Kevin E. Aghatise, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Igbinedion University Okada

ABSTRACT

Anaemia constitutes a serious health problem in many tropical countries including Nigeria because of the prevalence of malaria and other parasitic infections which possibly leads to decrease of hemoglobin. Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Gongrone malatifolium (utazi leaf) have been reported to be very good in building the constituents of the blood and also replacing them. This study was designed to investigate the effect of fluted pumpkin, bitter leaf and utazi leaf extracts on haematolgical parameters of anaemia induced albino wistar rats. Fifteen Wistar albino rats with weight range from (122-190g) obtained from the animal house of Madonna University, Elele Nigeria were separated into three groups of five rats each for the study. Rats in group B and C were injected 400mg/kg 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine for five days to induce anaemia, while rats in group A were fed with grower’s mash and water throughout the experiment. All analysis were done using the standard methods. The result of this study show that, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference when the PCV was compared among the Groups, the control groups had 41.0+2.65% anemia induced group had 25.3+6.8% and the treatment group recorded 33.6+4.9%. The anemia induce group recorded a reduced PCV but was raised in the treatment group and this was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was also a significant difference when the Haemoglobin concentration was compared among the groups, the control group had 14.1+0.7g/dl, anaemia-induced group has 8.3+1.9g/dl and the treatment group had 10.+2.15g/dl. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in all other parameters estimated. The result of this research indicate that aqueous leaf extract of fluted pumpkin, bitter leaf and utazi leaf could elevate the packed cell volume, red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration in anaemia-induced rats. It can be concluded that aqueous leaf extract of the combination of fluted pumpkin, bitter leaf and utazi leaf are a potential blood booster.

Keywords: anaemia-induced, blood booster, haematological, dinitrophenylhydrazine.

INTRODUCTION

The use of herbal products for medicinal benefits has an important role in nearly every culture on earth. Herbal medicine was practiced by ancient people of Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas (Abosi and Raseroka, 2003). Over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural product origin and natural products play an important role in drug development programs of the pharmaceutical industry. The consumption of a variety of local herbs and vegetables by man is believed to contribute significantly to the improvement of human health, in terms of prevention, or cure of disease because plants have long served as a useful and rational source of therapeutic agents (babalolaet al., 2003). Regular consumption of plant foods are associated with numerous health benefits rooted in their various physiological effects as a result of their physiochemical and nutritional constituent (Hunter and Fletcher, 2002).

Green leafy vegetables are particularly important in

promoting health because of their rich sources of nutrients (Gupta and Prakash, 2009). Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) is a common tropical green leafy vegetables native to many African countries especially Eastern Nigeria (Burkett, 1968). It thrives in humid climate and well drained soils and is usually cultivated in garden and family farms around homes. Telfairia occidentalis is traditionally used by an estimated 30 to 35 million people indigenous people in Nigeria, including the Efik, Ibibio, and Urhobo (Akoroda, 1990). However, it is predominantly used by the Igbo tribe, who continue to cultivate it for food sources and traditional medicines (Okoli and Mgbeogu, 1983). A reoccurring subject in the Igbo’s folklore, the fluted gourd is noted to have healing properties and was used as a blood tonic, to be administered to the weak or ill (Akoroda, 1990). Bitter leaf is a medicinal plant of the family Asterceae. It is a small perennial shrub that grows in tropical Africa. Vernonia amygdalina is commonly called bitter leaf because of its bitter taste and it can be propagated either by cutting or seedling. Today, the plant is widely known throughout the continent and nearly 85% of Nigerians cultivates the plant due to its nutritional and medicinal values. It is locally called ‘ewuro; in Yoruba land (Abosi and Raseroka, 2003). The leaves of the plant may be consumed either as a vegetable (macerated leaves in soup) or aqueous extract as tonic for the treatment of various illnesses (Abosi and Reseroka, 2003).

Gongrone malatifolium also called utazi belongs to class of medicinal plants that are beneficial in preventing and treating certain disease and ailments that are detrimental to human health. Gongrone malatifolium leaf, which can be chewed infused or used for cooking is mainly used in the western part of America for nutritional and medicinal reason. Pharmacological studies suggest that utazi has both analgesic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, anti ulcer and antioxidant properties (Eguyoni et al., 2009). Utazi plant is highly medicinal in nature, which suggest why its health benefits cannot be overemphasized. Researchers agree that the fundamental ingredients used for medical purposes are stored in the various parts of the utazi plants such as leaves, fruits, roots etc (Eguyoni et al., 2009). The vital medicinal ingredients stored in the various parts of the utazi leaf can be extracted either through blending the fresh leaves, chewing the utazi seed, leaves or fruits, infusing either the dry or fresh utazi leaves and decoction. However these various methods of preparing and using utazi leaves for medical purpose mainly depends on the part of utazi plants where the active medicinal ingredient are present (Eguyoni et al., 2009).

Anaemia is decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood. It can also be defined as a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen (Rodak and Bernadtte, 2007). When anaemia sets in slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include: feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise. Anaemia that comes on quickly often has greater symptoms, which may include; confusion, feeling like one is going to pass out, loss of consciousness, or increased thirst. Anaemia must be significant before a person becomes noticeably pale (Rodak and Bernadette, 2007).Use of plants has long been known to be used as local remedy for treatment of anaemia especially pumpkin leaf which is used in villages to treat anaemia especially when quality drugs cannot be accessed. This work was carried out to determine the effects of combination of herbal plants in anaemia-induced condition using haematological parameters.

Materials and Methods

Animal Model/Experimental design

Fifteen (15) Wistar strain albino rats with weight range of

(122 – 190g) obtained from the animal house, Madonna University Elele, Nigeria were used for the study. The rats were housed in wire meshed cage under standard conditions (temperature 25 – 29°C, 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness cycles) and fed with standard rat pelleted diet and water. They were housed in 3 meshed cages containing five

  1. rats in each cage. The rats were made to acclimatize for 1 week before the experiment began. They were allowed to feed on standard feed and water freely throughout the period the experiment lasted.

Ethical Approval

The research was approved by the ethical committee of the institution. The standard, rules and regulations of use of animal for research purposes was strictly adhered to as approved by the committee.

Order of Placement

Group1: The rats in this group served as control and were

administered with feed and water only. Group2: The rats in this group served as test and were administered with feed, water and 1 ml of phenyl hydrazine for five days. Group3: The rats in this group served as treatment group and were administered with feed, water, 1 ml of phenyl hydrazine for five days and subsequently treated with 0.5 ml of a blend of the local plants for another five days. Preparation and Administration of the plant blend

Large quantities of fresh leaves of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Gongrone malatifolium (utazi leaf) were purchased from the Central Market Elele. Identification and authentication of the plants was done by Mr Eze of the Faculty of Science. The leaves were washed and dried air-dried for eight days until there was no sign of moisture and grinded into powder. The powder was dissolved in 100 ml of deionized water and administered to the treatment group 0.5 ml in the morning and evening for 5 days.

Sample Collection

2ml of blood sample was collected by ocular puncture from each of the animal model using capillary tube and was dispensed into commercially prepared concentrations of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid containers.

Sample Analysis

Blood samples collected were analyzed within six hours of collection for Hb, PCV, RBC count, Total WBC and differential analysis using standard manual methods (Cheesebrough, 2000)

RESULTS

Mean±S.D of hematological parameters of the control group (A), test group (B) and treatment group ©

PARAMETERS GROUP A GROUP B GROUP C P-VALUE
PCV (%) 41.0+2.65 25.3+6.8 33.6+4.9 P<0.05
HB (g/dl) 14.1+0.7 8.3+1.9 10.5+2.15 P<0.05
RBC (X1012/l) 6.0+0.56 4.4+0.62 5.2+1.0 p>0.05
TWBC X109/1) 9.3+1.9 13.7+5.4 11.7+2.11 p>0.05
Platelet (x109/1) 272+24.0 261+39.5 302+39.2 p>0.05
NEUTROPHIL (%) 56.7+3.51 63.7+6.11 55.7+5.86 p>0.05
LYMPHOCYTE (%) 34+4.0 29.7+7.23 33.7+11.06 p>0.05
EOSINOPHIL (%) 6.0+1.0 4.0+1.0 4.3+1.53 p>0.05
MONOCYTE (%) 3.3+1.15 3.3+1.52 3.3+1.15 p>0.05

20

 

DISCUSSION

The consumption of a variety of local herbs and vegetables by man is believed to contribute significantly to the improvement of human health, in terms of prevention, and or cure of diseases because plants have long served as a useful and rational sources of therapeutic agents (Babalola et al., 2003). Regular consumption of plant foods are associated with numerous health benefits rooted in their various physiological effects as a result of their physiological and nutritional constituents (Hunter and Fletcher, 2002).

From the research work there was a significant (p<0.05) difference when the PCV was compared among the groups, the control group has 41.0±2.65%, anaemia induced group has 25.3±6.8% and the treatment group recorded 33.6±4.9%. The anaemia induced group recorded a reduced PCV but was raised in the treatment group and this was statistically significant (p<0.05). This definitely is attributable to the local blend of plants. Previous work have shown that pumpkin is capable of improving haematological parameters (Alada,2000; Adias et al., 2013).

There was also a significant difference when the Hb was compared among the group, the control group had 14.1±0.7g/dl, anaemic induced group had 8.3±1.9g/dl and the treatment group had 10.5±2.15g/dl, the anaemic group recorded a reduction 8.3+1.9/dl but was elevated in the group given the extract. The reason for the significant increase in these haematological parameters could be related to the chemical composition of the leaves used in this research work. The chemical composition of Telfairia occidentals includes protein, fat, carbohydrates, calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamine and riboflavin(Tindal, 1968; Adisa et al., 2014). Most of these constituents have positive impact on blood production (Akube, 1980). For instance, iron is a well established haemopoetic factor and deficiency of if produces anaemia (Ganong, 1997). There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the RBC, the control group had 6.0±0.56×1012/1, the anaemic group had 4.4±062×1012/1, while the treatment group had 5.2±1.0×1012/l. The extract increased the RBC count of the anaemia-induced group from 4.4+062×1012/1 to 5.2+1.0×1012/1 but this was not significant. For TWBC there was no significant (p>0.05) difference when the test groups B (13.7±5.4×109/1) was compared to the control group A (9.3±1×109/1) although the TWBC was increase in the anaemic group (13.7±5.4109/1) and reduced in the treatment group (11.7±2.11×109/1).

There was also no significant (p>0.05) difference in platelets count when the groups B (261±39.5×109/1) and C (302±39.2×109/1) was compared with control group

(272±24.0×109/1) although the platelets count decreased in the anaemic group and increased in the treatment group but this was not significant (p>0.05). No significant difference was seen in all the differential count parameters. In conclusion, the combination of the extract of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Gongrone malatifolium (utazi leaf) have been shown to improve blood parameters (PCV and haemoglobin concentration). This extract can be used in management of anaemia especially when the conventional blood builders are not readily available.

Conflict of interest

The Authors declare that we have no conflict of interest.

REFERENCES

  • Abosi, A. O. and Raserok, B. H. ( 2003) “In vivo antimalarial activity of Vernonia amygdalina” British Journal of Biomedical Science. 8 (60) 89 – 91.
  • Adias, T. C., Ajugwo, A. O., Erhabor, T. and Nyenke, C. U. (2013). “Effect of Pumpkin Extract (Telfairia occidentalis) on Routine Haematological Parameters in Acetone-Induced Oxidative Stress Albino Rats.” American Journal of Food Science and Technology 1 (4): 67 – 69. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-1-4-1.
  • Adisa, W. A., Okhiai, O., Bankole, J. K., Iyamu, O. A. and Aigbe, O. (2014). Testicular damage in Telfairia occidentalis extract treated Wistar rats” American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2 (2): 37 – 45.
  • Akoroda, M. O. (1990) “Ethnobotany of Telfairia occidentalis among Igbos of Nigeria” Economic Botany. 1 (230): 29 – 39.
  • Akube, A. (1980). Chemical composition of Telfairia occidentalis. Plantamedia 38 33 – 43.
  • Alada, A. R. (2000). The haematological effect of t diet preparation” African Journal of Biomedical Research. 3 (3): 185 – 186.
  • Babalola, O. O., Anetor, J. I., and Adeniyi, F. A. (2001) “Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced hepatoxicity by terpenoid extract from leaves of Vernonia amygdalina” African Journal Medicine Science. 2 (30): 91 – 93.
  • Burkett, H. M. (1968). The results of plants of West Africa. Vol 1. Royal Botanic Garden Kews, England. 603 – 604.
  • Cheesebrough, M. (2000). Haematological tests. In: District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Part 2 Cambridge University Press U.K. 297.
  • Eguyoni, A., Moody, J. O. and Eletu, O. M. (2009). “Anti-sickling activities of two ethnomedicinal plant recipes used for the management of sickle cell anaemia in Ibadan, Nigeria” African Journal of Biotechnology. 8 (1): 20 – 25.
  • Ganong, W. F. (1997). A review of medical physiology. Appleton and Large. 496
  • Gupta, S. and Prakash, J. (2009).”Studies on Indian green leafy vegetables for their antioxidant activities” Plant Foods Human Nutrition. 64 (1): 39 – 45.
  • Hunter, K. J. and Fletcher, J. M. (2002) “The antioxidant activity and composition of fresh, jarred, frozen and canned vegetables” Innovative Food Science and Emergency Technology. 3 (90): 34 – 37.
  • Okoli, B. E. and Mgbeogu, C. M. (1983).”Fluted pumpkin: West African Vegetable crop” School of Biological sciences, University of Port Harcourt. 37 (2): 145 – 149.
  • Rodak, A.and Bernadette, F. (2007). “Hematology: Clinical Principles and applications (3rd edition). Philadelphia
  • Tindal, H. D. (1968). Commercial vegetable growing. Oxford Press, London. 69

 




Assessment of Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Suya (Roasted Meat) and Nunu (Milk) Sold in Jos Metropolis

Assessment of Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Suya (Roasted Meat) and Nunu (Milk) Sold in Jos Metropolis

Ejinaka, OR; ; Lote-Nwaru IE; Agbalaka P.I; Ajik, H.

Federal School of Medical Laboratory Science, Jos-Nigeria

Jwanse, R.I

Health and Development Support Programme (Hands), Jos, Nigeria

All correspondence to: Obeta M.U. E-mail: uchejesoobeta@gmail.com;

ABSTRACT

The assessment of antibiotic susceptibility pattern on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Suya (Roasted Meat) and Nunu (Milk) sold in Jos was carried out in Jos Metropolis. This study was aimed at the occurrence of staphylococcus aureus in suya and nunu and its sensitivity to antibiotics. A total of 15 Suya and 15 Nunu sample were collected, the sample were cultured and identified by routine bacteriological method. Prevalence of S.aureus in Nunu was 40% and Suya was 33.3%. The susceptibility profile of staphylococcus aureus isolates from Suya (roasted meat) on an antimicrobial agents revealed a high susceptibility to Gentamycin (80%), Levofloxacin (80%), Rifampin (80%) Norfloxacin (80%) and had high resistance to Chloramphericol (80%), Ciprofloxacin (80%), Amoxil (80%), Ampiclox (80%) and Erythromycin (60%). The susceptibility profile of staphylococcus aureus isolates from Nunu (milk) on an antimicrobial agents revealed a high susceptibility to Gentamycin (80%), Levofloxacin (83.3%), Norfloxacin (83.3%), Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin (66.7%) respectively, Rifampin and Levofloxacin 50% respectively and had high resistance to Chloramphericol, Amoxil and Ampiclox (66.7%) respectively; Rifampin and Levofloxacin 50% respectively. The S. aureus was present in Suya (Roasted Meat) and Nunu

(Milk) sold in Jos and resistant to some commonly used antibiotics in Jos.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic Susceptibility, Suya, Nunu, Jos.

INTRODUCTION
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major food borne abdominal cramping, with or without diarrhea. The disease is usually self-limiting and typically resolves within 24 – 48h after onset. Occasionally it can be severe enough to pathogens, frequently causing disease globally as a warrant hospitalization, particularly when infants, elderly result of food ingestion contaminated with or debilitated people are concerned (Argud´ın et al., 2012;
staphylococcal endotoxin (Mendoza, et al., 2010). S.
Mendoza et al, 2013).
S. aureus can cause wide spectrum of infections, ranging from superficial skin infections to severe, and potentially fatal, Jhalka et al., (2014) suggests the contributing factors for invasive disease due to combination of toxin-mediated the low incidence of SFD to include misdiagnosis, virulence, invasiveness, and antibiotic resistance. An improper sample collection in laboratory during important impediment to the control of the Staphylococcus examination, lack of seeking medical attention by the aureus infection is the tendency to gain resistance to almost affected persons, and lack of routine surveillance of all classes of antimicrobial agent (Jhalka et al., 2014).
clinical for S. aureus or its enterotoxins and unavailability
Staphylococcus aureus does not compete well with
of implicated foods for confirmation of laboratory testing
indigenous microbial in raw foods, contamination is
at the time of outbreak.
mainly associated with improper handling of cooked or
processed foods. However, S. aureus is also present in food,
Food handlers such as Suya meat and Nunu vendors are
animals, and dairy cattle, sheep and goats (Larkin et al.,
carrying enterotoxin-producing S. aureus in their noses or
2009). The S. aureus bacteria were then termed methicillin-
their hands which are regarded as the main source of food
resistant S. aureus (MRSA) usually show resistant to many
contamination, via manual contact or through respiratory
antibiotic (Ray et al., 2013). Staphylococcal food
secretions thereby contaminating raw foods, as a result of
poisoning (SFP) is an intoxication that results from the
improper handling of cooked or processed foods, followed
consumption of foods containing sufficient amounts of one
by storage under condition which allows growth of S.
(or more) preformed enterotoxin symptoms of SFP have a
aureus in food and animals. Food that have been frequently
rapid onset (2-8h), and include nausea, violet vomiting,
incriminated in staphylococcus intoxication include meat

and meat products, poultry and egg products, milk and dairy products, salads, bakery products, particularly cream-filled pastries and cakes, and sandwich filling. Salted food products (SFP) such as ham, have also been implicated according to the capacity of S. aureus to grow at relatively low water activity.

S. aureus have been found to survive in materials, clothes, hand nails, ATMs, mobile phones aside skins and nasal areas of the body (Oviasogie et al., 2014; Ekrakene & Igeleke, 2007; Adetona & Olabisio, 2010). It is noteworthy that Suya and Nunu hawkers come in contact with clothes, phones, ATMs and other materials while doing the merchandise without any consideration of washing before handling the food.

SFP is common disease whose real incidence is probably underestimated for a number of reasons, which include misdiagnosis, unreported minor outbreaks, improper sample collection and improper laboratory examination. (Argud´ın et al., 2010)

Nowhere has this issue been of great concern than with the gram-positive bacteria pneumococci, enterococci and staphylococci where multidrug resistance has become a norm among these pathogens. S. aureus is perhaps the pathogen of great concern because of its intrinsic virulence its ability to cause a diverse array of life-threatening infection, and its capacity to adapt to different environment conditions (Argud´ın et al., 2012, Hennekinne et al., 2012). The mortality of S. aureus bacteremia remains approximately 20-40% despite the availability of effective antimicrobial agents (Hassen et al., 2006). S. aureus is now the leading overall cause of nosocomial infections and, as more patients are treated outside the hospital setting is an increasing concern in the community as it is popular practice in Jos where drug vendors and Chemists are patronized without diagnosis or medical advice and such could also lead to increasing resistance to a great number of antimicrobial agents. Inevitably this has left fewer effective bactericidal antibiotics to treat these often life-threatening infections. As rapidly as new antibiotics are introduced, staphylococci have developed efficient mechanism to neutralize them.

In Jos metropolis, most infection are been treated with available drugs in the clinic or just by visiting drug vendors otherwise called Chemists where they are given antibiotics without recourse to medical laboratory diagnosis to identify the disease causing organism and possible susceptible drugs for the disease. Such common antibiotics have been found to be resistant to S. aureus as reported by Wang et al., (2017).

This study is aimed to determine the presence and antibiotics susceptibility profile of pathogenic staphylococcus aureus in Nunu and and Suya meat sold in Jos metropolis.

Materials and Methods

Study Area

The study was carried out in Jos Metropolis, Jos North Local Government Area in locations: Hamaz, Gangare, Railway, Yan Taya and Plateau riders Park. Sample Size / Collection

A total of 15 roasted meats (Suya) and 15 raw milk (Nunu) were collected from the select areas in and around Jos metropolis which includes: Hamaz, Gangare, Railway, Yan Taya and Plateau Riders Park. The Suya (roasted meat) and Nunu samples were obtained 3 each from every point of sales in Hamaz, Gangare, Railway, Yan Taya and Plateau riders Park into a sterilized universal bottle, packed into a polythene bags, and transported into the medical laboratory for analysis. While the Nunu sample were also collected in sterile polythene bags and transported in an icebox and transported to the Federal School Research Laboratory, Jos for analysis within 3 hours.

Isolation of Staphylococcus Aureus in Nunu and Suya 1mL of each sample was transferred to flask containing 9ml of peptone water for enrichment. According to ISO 6888, the plates were incubated under aerobic conditions at 370C for 24hr and those that yielded growth were subjected to another 24hr incubation for susceptibility assessment.

The total counts were carried out using nutrient agar. In serial dilution preparation, 1.0g of sample was aseptically, transferred into 9.0ml of diluted water and homogenized by vortex. Subsequent serial dilutions up to 10-5 were made in line with Kalalou et al. (2004). The enumeration of microorganisms in the samples was by the pour plate technique. At the end of the incubation, resultant microbial colonies (staphylococcus aureus) were counted.

Identification of Staphylococcus Aureus from Nunu and Suya

Pure isolates of microorganism grown on the different chocolate agar plates were further identified biochemically using Cowan and Steel (1974) technique using oxidase, coagulase, maltose, glucose and gram’s staining. The staphilococcus aureus were the only organisms isolated from suya meat and nunu samples obtained from the food vendors in Jos metropolis as identified from the samples.

Antibiotic Susceptibility Test of the Isolates of Staphilococcus Aureus

All S. aureus isolates were screened for multi-drug-resistance using disc diffusion in line with Bauer et al., (1966). This was performed on nutrient agar plates. Furthermore, the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of S. aureus strains was determined by disc diffusion method for Ciprofloxacin (10mcg), Gentamycin (10mcg), Norfloxacin (10mcg), Erythromycin (30mcg), Streptomycin (30mcg), Levofloxacin (20mcg), Chloramphenicol (30mcg), Amoxil, Ampiclox and Rifampin. Chloramphenical, Erythromycin and Norfloxacin susceptibility was determined by the e-test according to the manufacturers’ guidelines (Biometriux, France).

The diameter of the zone of inhibition produced each antibiotic disc was measured, recorded and the isolates were classified as “resistant”, “intermediate” and “sensitive” based on the standard interpretative chart updated according to the CLSI (2015). Multi-resistance was defined by resistance of the strain to at least three antibiotic agents.

15

 

RESULTS

Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus from suya (roasted meat) sample

S/N Meat sample S. aureus x(y) Cell count Percentage
prevalence (%)
1. A 2(3) 7 x 1010 66.7
8 x 1010
2. B 1(3) 4 x 1010 33.3
3. C 1(2) 9 x 1010 50.0
4. D 0(2) 0.0
5. E 1(5) 5 x 1010 40.0
Total 5(15) 33.3

Key: X = Number Positive, Y = Number of sample examined, A = Hamas, B = Gangare, C = Rail Way, D = Yantaya, E = Plateau riders

Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus from Nunu in Jos Metropolis

S/N Meat sample S. aureus x(y) Cell count Prevalence (%)
1. A 2(3) 6x 1010 66.7
8 x 1010
2. B 1(2) 4 x 1010 50.0
3. C 0(5) 0.0
4. D 2(3) 4 x 1010 66.7
7 x 1010
5. E 1(2) 3 x 1010 50.0
Total 6(15) 40.0

Key: X = Number Positive, Y = Number of sample examined, A = Hamas, B = Gangare, C = Rail Way, D = Yantaya, E = Plateau riders

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile for Suya (Roasted Meat)

Antibiotics Disc t Samples Percentage Percentage
Conten A2 B1 C1 D3 E1 Resistance Sensitive
(ng) (%) (%)
Norfloxacin (NB) 10 R S S S S 20 80
Chloramphenicol (CH) 30 R S R R R 80 20
Ciprofloxacin (CPF) 10 R R S R R 80 20
Erythromycin (E) 30 S R R R S 60 40
Levofloxacin (LV) 20 R S S S S 20 80
Ampiclox (AML) 20 R R S R R 80 20
Amoxil (AML) 20 R R S R R 80 20
Gentamycin (CN) 10 R S S S S 20 80
Rifampin (RD) 5 S S R S S 20 80

Key: S = Sensitive, R = Resistance

16

Assessment of Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern on Staphylococcus…

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile for Suya (Roasted Meat)

Antibiotics Disc t Samples Percentage Percentage
Conten A2 B1 D2 E1 B3 E2 Resistance Sensitive
(ng) (%) (%)
Norfloxacin (NB) 10 S S R S S S 16.67 83.34
Chloramphenicol (CH) 30 R R S S R R 66.67 33.34
Ciprofloxacin (CPF) 10 S R S S S R 33.34 66.67
Erythromycin (E) 30 S R S S S R 33.34 66.667
Levofloxacin (LV) 20 S R R S R S 50.00 50.00
Ampiclox (AML) 20 R S R R S R 66.67 33.34
Amoxil (AML) 20 R R R R S S 66.67 33.34
Gentamycin (CN) 10 S S R S S S 16.67 83.34
Rifampin (RD) 5 S S R R R S 50.00 50.00

Key: S = Sensitive, R = Resistance

Discussion

Staphylococcus aureus is an important health care and community acquired infection in every region of the world (Wang et al., 2017). This studies shows that Staphylococcus aureus is prevalent in Suya (33.3%) and Nunu (40%) and could possess a potential health hazard (Sofos, 2008) to consumers in Jos Metropolis. Studies on isolation and antibiotic susceptibility frequency of isolation of S. aureus isolates from meat and milk may be due to the possible susceptibility of S. aureus isolates from Suya and Nunu to Levofloxacin, Erythromycin, Norfloxacin, Gentamycin and Rifampin as observed in this study. However, this report was not different from other studies reported by Waters et al. (2011). The high susceptibility of S. aureus to these antibiotics may be due to high costly or injectable forms and the possibility of abuse of such antibiotics may be low. The low susceptibility of chloramphenicol, amoxil, ampiclox observed in this study was not different from the other studies reported by Le et al., (2003). The low susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics mentioned may be due to inappropriate use of antibiotics without doctor’s prescription and inclusion of antibiotics in animal feeds as growth promoter (Le et al., 2003). From this study, it was however observed that the frequency of isolation of S. aureus observed in this study was high and isolates were more susceptible to flouroquinolones and aminoglycosides. In view of this, such drugs may be useful for treatment of staphylococcal infections, but there is a need to conduct appropriate medical laboratory diagnosis to find out the causative organism S. aureus for example before treatment especially in Jos Metropolis. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics/antimicrobials agents for prophylactic as well as other therapeutic purpose could be the reasons for increased antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in animals and humans.

Conclusion

Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is a major concern in public health programs worldwide. S. aureus may be present in cow milk as a result of milk collection from the animal suffering from disease condition and excreting S. aureus in milk or due to unhygienic conditions during production, processing, storage and handling of milk products, which are the main causes of food borne

diseases. The result of this study clearly indicated that some Nunu and Suya available in the Jos metropolis were contaminated with S. aureus, which could pose a risk of food poisoning to Jos metropolis. Thus, more hygienic preventive measures are required to reduce the bacterial contamination, so as to increase the wholesomeness of these Nunu and Suya. The study also revealed common antibiotics used in Jos which are resistant to S. aureus. This study highlights the need for continuous surveillance of antibiotic sensitivity pattern of staphylococcus aureus with a view to selecting appropriate therapy. This study also recommends that:

  1. All Suya meat and Nunu vendors should imbibe adequate hygiene measures while handling the food products
  2. The Suya and Nunu vendors should use nose masks while processing handling their products
  3. The Suya and Nunu vendors in Jos metropolis should avoid using dirty rags to clean their hands while processing and dispensing their products to the public

REFERENCES

  • Adetona, S. & Olabisio, A. (2010). The Potential Role of mobile phone in spread of bacterial infection. Dept. Microbiol. LASU, 3:628-632.
  • Argudín, M. A., Mendoza, M. C., González-Hevia, M. A., Bances, M., Guerra, B., and Rodicio, M. R. (2012). Genotypes, exotoxin gene content, and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains recovered from foods and food handlers. Appl. Environ. M i c r o b i o l . 7 8 , 2 9 3 0 – 2 9 3 5 . D O I : 10.1128/AEM.07487-11.
  • Argudín, M. Á., Mendoza, M. C. & Rodicio, M. R. (2010). Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. Toxins 2, 1751–1773. DOI: 10.3390/toxins2071751.
  • Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.W., Sherris, J.C. & Turek, M. (1966). Antibiotic Susceptibility testing by a standardized single Disc method. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol.45:493-496.
  • Chen, C. J. & Huang, Y. C. (2014). New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 20, 605–623. DOI: 10.1111/1469-0691.12705.
  • Cho, S. Y. & Chung, D. R. (2017). Infection prevention strategy in hospitals in the era of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Asia-Pacific region: a review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 64, S82–S90. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix133.
  • CLSI (2015). Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria; Approved Guideline. Wayne Pennsylvania, PA: Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute.
  • Cowan, S.T. (1979). Cowan and Steel Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press.
  • Derek, F. & Brown, J. (2001). Detection of Methicillin / Oxacillin resistance in Staphilococci. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 48: Suppl. S1. 65-70.
  • Ekrakene, T. & Igeleke, C.L. (2007). Microorganisms associated with public Mobile Phones along Benin Sapele Express way J. Appl. Sci. Res. 3(12):2009-2012.
  • Hanssen, A.M., Kjeldsen, G. & Sollid, J.U. (2004). Local variants of Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec in sporadic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci: evidence of horizontal gene transfer? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 285–296.
  • Hanssen, A.M. Ericson, T. &, Sollid, J.U. (2006). SCCmec in staphylococci: genes on the move. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 46: 8–20.
  • Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Marie-Laure De B u y s e r & S y l v i a n e D r a g a c c ( 2 0 1 2 ) . Staphylococcus aureus and its food poisoning toxins: characterization and outbreak investigation. FEMS Microbiol Rev 36 (2012) 815–836. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011 .00311.
  • Jhalka Kadariya, Tara C. Smith, & Dipendra Thapaliya (2014). Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health BioMed Research International Volume 2014, Article ID 8 2 7 9 6 5 , 9 p a g e s h t t p : / / d x . D O I . o r g / 10.1155/2014/827965
  • Kalalou, I., Faid, M. & Ahami, A.T. (2004). Extending shelf life of fresh minced camel meat at ambient temperature by Lactobacillus D e l b r u e c k i i , E l e c t r o n i c J o u r n a l o f Biotechnology, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 243–248.
  • Larkin, E.A., Carman, R.J.., krakuer, T. & Stiles, B.G. (2009). Staphilococcus aureus: The Toxic Presence of Pathogen extraordinaire. Curr. Med. Chem. 2009; 16:4003-4019
  • Le Loir, Y., Baron, F., & Gautier, M. (2003). Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. Genet. Mol. Res. 2, 63–76.
  • Mendoza-Olazara´n, Soraya; Rayo Morfin-Otero; Eduardo Rodrı´guez-Noriega; Jorge Llaca-Dı´az; Samantha Flores-Trevin˜o; Gloria Ma Gonza´lez-Gonza´ lez; Licet Villarreal-Trevin˜o; Elvira Garza-Gonza´lez (2013). Microbiological and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus hominis Isolates from Blood. P L o S O N E 8 ( 4 ) : e 6 1 1 6 1 . DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061161
  • Oviasogie, F.E., Agbonlahor, D.E., Osagie, Ehanire, E.A. & Igere, B. (2014). Genetic and Phenotypic Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphilococcus aureus Isolates from handrails, Mobile Phones and Automated Teller Machines (ATM) in Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science, Vol. 23 No. 1;Pg 51-58
  • Oviasogie, F.E. & Agbonlahor, D.E. (2013). The burden, antibiogram and pathogenicity of bacteria found in Municipal waste dumpsites and on waste site workers in Benin City. Journal of Biomedical Research 12(2), 115 – 130
  • Ray, G.T., Suaya, I.A. & Baxter, R. (2013). Microbiology of Skin and Soft Tissue uninfections in the age of community acquired methicilline-Resistant staphylococcus aureus design Microbial infect. Disc. 76:24-30.
  • Sofos, J.N. (2008). Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century, Meat Science, vol. 78, no. 1-2, pp. 3–13, 2008.
  • Wang W, Baloch Z, Jiang T, Zhang C, Peng Z, Li F, Fanning S, Ma A & Xu J (2017) Enterotoxigenicity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Food in China. Front. Microbiol. 8:2256. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2017.02256.